What You Need to Know Before You Lift Your Golf Cart

Lifting Golf Carts has never been more popular, and with all the advancements made in this area it has never been easier! You now have a wide variety of choices when considering a golf cart lift kit. This article is designed to give you a basic introduction to golf cart modification, and to help you decide if lifting is right for you.

Lift Kits are great and tons of fun, nothing looks quite as good as a cart lifted with big tires and a awesome paint job! Lifts will also give you the clearance needed to navigate tougher terrains. However you have to consider several performance elements before lifting a cart.

Speed, torque, and gear ratio will all be affected by a lift. There are many performance golf cart parts that can drastically improve any drawbacks but please understand lifting a golf cart can be an expensive and time consuming undertaking. The quality of the products you choose will play a huge part in the performance you can expect after a lift. Lift Kits are one area that you should never cut corners on or buying lesser quality equipment.

Here are some of the basic areas you should consider before lifting your cart, if you find the benefits of a lift outweigh the cons then you will most likely love your new lift.

Along with most lifts come bigger tires. Since all carts were designed with a specified tire size to work efficiently with the gear ratio in the differential, increasing tire size will affect your carts performance in several ways:

  1. When you increase the overall height of your tires you may gain a little top-end speed when on flat ground, due to larger tires rolling further with each revolution.
  2. More strain is put on your motor or engine to move the larger tires the same amount of rotations it was moving the smaller tires.
  3. When climbing inclines or carrying loads your engine or motor has to work harderthr even with standard size tires. The larger the tire the more work for the cart.
  4. More work combined with the strain to rotate the larger tires will greatly reduce your climbing speed and load carrying torque.

Safety is probably the largest area to consider with any cart modification no matter how small. A lift will not only raise your cart it will raise your center of gravity as well. Your driving habits will need to be adjusted in response, the chances of rolling or flipping a cart increase with any lift or whenever the center of gravity is raised. You will no longer be able to take turns as fast a you normally do and you will need to use caution on hilly terrain.

One of the biggest benefits you will gain from a lift is that in raising the center of gravity your clearance is increased. Now you can navigate rough terrains you probably couldn't before!

Golf Cart Lift Kits come in several types and lift sizes depending on your make of cart. The most common lifts are spindle and drop axle. Recently long travel adjustable lifts have taken golf cart lifts to a whole new level! These truly amazing lifts allow you to be in control of your carts height and easily change it to suit your needs.

Spindle lifts are probably the easiest kits to install as well as the cheapest. Spindle lifts simply replace the factory spindles lifting the cart. Drop axle lifts replace the entire axle and can be a little more expensive and complicated to install. However a axle lift is a much stronger cleaner looking lift.

To best decide what lift is right for you here are some questions you should ask yourself:

  1. What is the cart primarily used for?
  2. Are you bothered by your carts current limitations?
  3. Do you use the cart on a golf course or on the street?
  4. What is your budget and are you able to go over it if need be?
  5. Is hauling large loads or climbing hills important? If so are you willing to further modify your cart?
  6. Do you have the time and money to modify other components if need be?

If your cart is primarily used on a course or the street, you should either not lift it or go with an adjustable long travel kit. Golf courses do not allow aggressive tread or all terrain tires due to the damage they cause to turf. An adjustable kit will give you the freedom to drop your cart down and swap your tires when you want to play a round. All terrain tires are designed to be used both on and off road, however you will wear them down faster on pavement and the ride is not all the time pleasant. It will be up to you to decide if the time spent adjusting your lift and changing your tires out is worth it, or more trouble than it's worth. Most people who spend more time either on or off road but once in a while do the opposite benefit the most from a long travel kit.

If you spend most to all of your time off road then a more permanent lift is probably the best choice for you. It will then be more a matter of deciding between a spindle or a drop axle lift.

Drop axles are usually the best lift kits you can buy and there are several great premium manufacturer's such as Jake's or All Sports Mfg. Always invest as much as possible, as quality really makes a huge difference in a lift kit. Save up if you have to but never sacrifice quality for cost!

If you have the time and the money to invest in your cart it can become a great hobby for you and your family. You will be surprised at how one modification will lead to two or three, and if done correctly you will end up with performance mixed with style. Just always remember safety and make sure any changes you make you research completely beforehand.

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Python Language: Why One Should Learn It and How It Can Help

Many programming languages ​​are used today, some are used, and some have gone obsolete. In the last few years, the programming scenario has changed drastically as developers and programmers are searching for more universal and approachable languages. This is the reason why Python language has become so famous recently. The Python community is growing bigger day by day as many programs are now finding it to be one of the most user-friendly programming languages.

Python language has become so famous that every field and sector is now a user of it. Even though the other programming languages ​​are not losing their fans, Python is increasing its fan base. Therefore, more and more people are now aspiring to learn Python. Some of the reasons why having a certification in Python can be helpful are discussed below:

Machine learning

Today, almost everything runs through algorithms, whether it is a search engine, social media, chat bots, virtual personal assistants, etc. These sophisticated algorithms are the result of machine learning and it has changed the entire technological scenario. With machine learning, the major programming language that is been used is Python, and one can find many libraries dedicated to machine learning only.

Big data

Python is used in data science the most and the professionals in this field are required to have expertise in this programming language. Though there are many other languages ​​like Java, R, etc. which is used for data science, Python remains the favorite. This is because of the diversity it allows in automation technology, along with with the various framework and library available like NumPy, PyBrain, etc.

Web development

There are many websites these days like Reddit which are developed using Python language. The main reason why the Python programming language is used in web development is its speed and effectiveness. Using PHP developing a website can take hours, while using Python will take only a few minutes. Also, there are frameworks and libraries like Django and Flask which make the work much easier.


One of the areas that programmers search for these days is the communities. In these communities, the developers and programmers can connect with others from any part of the world and can share their experiences and technologies. This helps them in learning new things about Python and how to solve various issues that may arise while coding.


Libraries are really helpful when it comes to application and website development. One can find any kind of code. Python has a huge number of frameworks and libraries like Flask, Django, NumPy, Scipy, Pandas, Tensorflow, Keras, etc. One needs to concentrate on the logic and objective and the codes are easily available in the libraries.


Lastly, the biggest reason why programmers use Python is the fact that it is a simple programming language. It is a beginner user-friendly language as it does not require a lot of complex codes and syntaxes which are not understandable. Python has an easy and readable syntax and coding which makes its set-up and usage much easier.

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Credit Balance in Medical Billing

As the name implies, a Credit Balance occurs when excess money is collected compared to the Charges for a service rendered by the Provider. This could be due to many reasons and has to be fixed while the final steps of medical claims processing are done. The Credit Balance could be due to an excess patient payment in the form of Co-insurance or Deductible; or it could be due to over-payments from the Insurance Payers. Let us analyze some scenarios and why it is important to be handled promptly:

Patient Credit Balance:

Patients might have paid an amount up front based on the assumption of what their Payers would cover. Once the medical claims processing is completed and the Payer pays in full, then the Patient's payment is in excess. The physician billing solution can also call the patient and give the option of adjusting this excess against future visits or sending a check. But in either scenario, the Patient's consent has to be obtained and is mandatory.

Payer Credit Balance:

Many a times the Credit Balance happens because of Over-payments by the Payers. Even the Patient's Credit Balance is usually because the Payer paid more than anticipated. In medical claims processing, it is very important to handle the payments from Payers on priority. This not only projects the correct Cash flow as a result of the physician billing solution, but also prevents inflated AR. Some scenarios on Payer Credit Balances:

1) Both Primary and Secondary Payer pay as Primary
2) Payer pays more than Allowed amount by error
3) Cross-over errors, especially between Medicare and Medicaid
4) Privately purchased Plans – always pay as Primary, though there could be another Primary


In all these instances, there are very strict guidelines and time frames within which the excess money has to be returned either to the Payer or to the Patient, as the case may be. In case of Payer errors, the Payer has to be notified of the error within 30-120 days depending on the Payer. Failure to notify within the timeframe could be viewed as 'Fraud' by the Payer and the State with stiff penalties. If the Payers refuse the refund (as in the case of privately purchased Plans), then that money belongs to the Patient and the Patient has to be notified. The medical claims processing and physician billing solution providers have to keep these requirements in mind and process the Credit Balances on a daily / weekly basis to avoid any trouble for the Provider and the Practice.

Recoupments and Offsets:

Some payers would adjust the payments for current and future claims against Credit Balances owed to other Payers which are Recoupments. When the Payers adjust the payments for current and future claims against the over-payments made in the past in their own Plans, these are called Offsets.

The best option to handle the Credit Balances is to outsource medical billing to a professional medical claims processing company.

Log on to http://www.mgsionline.com/medical-claims-billing.html to know more about medical Claims billing and processing.

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Home Insurance Explained

Congratulations! You're about to become a full-fledged homeowner. Before you let the drawn-out home buying process pass and you begin to bask in the first moments of home ownership, be sure to be on top of the home insurance process.

After putting so much time, effort and money into buying your new home, you're going to want to be sure your home has the proper coverage it needs.

Of course, you probably are not even sure of the type of varying coverage you need.
While there's standard insurance for homes, every home and every homeowner has individual exposures that need to be addressed. And while insurance can seem like a thorny process, if viewed as piece by piece coverage, it is easier to understand.

The insurance people sum up six chief forms of coverage so that even a layman can make sense of the information.

The Six Essential Forms of Homeowners Insurance

1. Your dwelling coverage: This coverage protects you from damage to the actual locations of your house. If there is a covered loss – one incurred as a result of events such as fire, storms, theft and / or vandalism – you will be reimbursed up to the limits for repair work or rebuilding. In order to assess your coverage needs in regard to this, you and your insurance specialist can estimate how much it would cost to reconstruct your home. Additionally, if there's a mortgage on the home, your lender will demand explicit kinds of coverage, as well as specified limits and deductibles.

2. Your other structures: Any detached garage or the like, such as sheds or fences, will be protected under this form of coverage. Coverage is generally up to 10% of the amount of insurance on your home, but you can request broader coverage if you think you need it.

3. Your personal property: This aspect of insurance shields you from damages or losses in regard to your personal things. This includes furniture, sporting goods, computer systems, kitchen appliances and so on. A standard policy will cover the actual cash value, but if you think it's better to go with replacement cost coverage you can opt for it. Both of these forms of coverage are subject to the limits and deductibles set within the policy.

4. Your loss of use coverage: In the event your home is so damaged from a covered peril that you cannot live in it while under repair or reconstruction, this form of coverage pays for your temporary living costs.

5. Personal Liability: This coverage will protect you from a lawsuit if you or other household members cause an injury to another person or cause damage to another's property.

6. Medical Payments: This type of coverage will cover the medical costs of those injured on your premises.

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Cryptocurrency: The Fintech Disruptor

Blockchains, sidechains, mining – terminologies in the clandestine world of cryptocurrency keep piling up by minutes. Although it sounds unreasonable to introduce new financial terms in an already intricate world of finance, cryptocurrencies offer a much-needed solution to one of the biggest annoyances in today's money market – security of transaction in a digital world. Cryptocurrency is a defining and disruptive innovation in the fast-moving world of fin-tech, a pertinent response to the need for a secure medium of exchange in the days of virtual transaction. In a time when deals are merely digits and numbers, cryptocurrency proposes to do exactly that!

In the most rudimentary form of the term, cryptocurrency is a proof-of-concept for alternative virtual currency that promises secured, anonymous transactions through peer-to-peer online mesh networking. The misnomer is more of a property rather than actual currency. Unlike everyday money, cryptocurrency models operate without a central authority, as a decentralized digital mechanism. In a distributed cryptocurrency mechanism, the money is issued, managed and endorsed by the collective community peer network – the continuous activity of which is known as mining on a peer's machine. Successful miners receive coins too in appreciation of their time and resources utilized. Once used, the transaction information is broadcasted to a blockchain in the network under a public-key, preventing each coin from being spent twice from the same user. The blockchain can be thought of as the cashier's register. Coins are secured behind a password-protected digital wallet representing the user.

Supply of coins in the digital currency world is pre-decided, free of manipulation, by any individual, organizations, government entities and financial institutions. The cryptocurrency system is known for its speed, as transaction activities over the digital wallets can materialize funds in a matter of minutes, compared to the traditional banking system. It is also largely irreversible by design, further bolstering the idea of ​​anonymity and eliminating any further chances of tracing the money back to its original owner. Unfortunately, the salient features – speed, security, and anonymity – have also made crypto-coins the mode of transaction for numerous illegal trades.

Just like the money market in the real world, currency rates fluctuate in the digital coin ecosystem. Owing to the finite amount of coins, as demand for currency increases, coins inflate in value. Bitcoin is the largest and most successful cryptocurrency so far, with a market cap of $ 15.3 Billion, capturing 37.6% of the market and currently priced at $ 8,997.31. Bitcoin hit the currency market in December, 2017 by being traded at $ 19,783.21 per coin, before facing the sudden plunge in 2018. The fall is partly due to the rise of alternative digital coins such as Ethereum, NPCcoin, Ripple, EOS, Litecoin and MintChip.

Due to hard-coded limits on their supply, cryptocurrencies are considered to follow the same principles of economics as gold – price is determined by the limited supply and the fluctuations of demand. With the constant fluctuations in the exchange rates, their sustainability still remains to be seen. Consequently, the investment in virtual currencies is more speculation at the moment than an everyday money market.

In the wake of industrial revolution, this digital currency is an indispensable part of technological disruption. From the point of a casual observer, this rise may look exciting, threatening and mysterious all at once. While some economist remain skeptical, others see it as a lightning revolution of monetary industry. Conservatively, the digital coins are going to displace roughly quarter of national currencies in the developed countries by 2030. This has already created a new asset class alongside the traditional global economy and a new set of investment vehicle will come from cryptofinance in the next years. Recently, Bitcoin may have taken a dip to give spotlight to other cryptocurrencies. But this does not signal any crash of the cryptocurrency itself. While some financial advisors emphasis over governments' role in cracking down the clandestine world to regulate the central governance mechanism, others insist on continuing the current free-flow. The more popular cryptocurrencies are, the more scrutiny and regulation they attract – a common paradox that bedevils the digital note and erodes the primary objective of its existence. Either way, the lack of intermediaries and oversight is making it remarkably attractive to the investors and causing daily commerce to change drastically. Even the International Monetary Fund (IMF) fears that cryptocurrencies will displace central banks and international banking in the near future. After 2030, regular commerce will be dominated by crypto supply chain which will offer less friction and more economic value between technologically adept buyers and sellers.

If cryptocurrency aspires to become an essential part of the existing financial system, it will have to satisfy very divergent financial, regulatory and societal criteria. It will need to be hacker-proof, consumer friendly, and heavily safeguarded to offer its fundamental benefit to the mainstream monetary system. It should preserve user anonymity without being a channel of money laundering, tax evasion and internet fraud. As these are must-haves for the digital system, it will take a few more years to comprehend whether cryptocurrency will be able to compete with the real world currency in full swing. While it is likely to happen, cryptocurrency's success (or lack thereof) of tackling the challenges will determine the fortune of the monetary system in the days ahead.

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Listing Education on a Resume

So you've gone to the time, expense and effort to complete some aspect of formal education. Or maybe you started to work on this, but then inevitably, life happened … had to take a job to pay the bills, got married, had kids, moved, etc. etc. There's a universe of things that life can throw at you that can interrupt even the most well-intentioned plans for education.

There are some rules of thumb out there when listing education on a resume which should be considered.

1. DON'T list the year you graduated. Unless you are in an education, government, scientific or highly technical field where having a date of graduation is essential, please don't broadcast how old you are by including this information. (Human resource managers do the math!) Sure, if you are an adult learner who just got done with a degree, it's new and important to you just like it is to a person fresh out of high school who immediately went to college. However, resist the temptation to perhaps look younger by listing the graduation date!

With the exception of the four fields mentioned above, the cold, hard truth about education is this:

Most employers really only care whether you graduated … Yes or No.

They don't care what your GPA was, how many times you made it to the Dean's list, what scholarships you landed, and sure, you can list that you graduated as magna cum laude or summa cum laude … but that often isn 't a deciding factor as to whether or not to hire you-it just becomes distracting with all of the scholarships, awards, grade points, etc. Keep it clean and simple.

2. A common mistake recent graduates also make is that they want to list their education FRONT AND CENTER … naturally because this is generally the MOST IMPORTANT THING the person has ever done in their lives to date. However, most human resource managers are really probing for what kinds of experience that the person has, not their education. So the best advice is to put the education later in the résumé rather than near the beginning.

3. DO list all of your education. Some people in this economy are becoming sensitive about feeling 'over-qualified' or 'over-educated.' Think of it this way-employers are in the catbird seat right now … they can afford to hire workers that they couldn't dream of hiring just five years ago. So they are 'cherry-picking' the top candidates and if they can find a top leader in a field who is willing to come work for them, they'll gladly take them. Who wouldn't?

Additionally, if you did not complete a degree, you can indicate: "Program coursework in: (area of ​​study).

Give yourself credit for the time you've put into it, even if the end result isn't what you had hoped for. It shows initiative and a desire to improve your knowledge and skills.

I've had a few clients that I've worked with who had put down a degree name on their résumé, but it turned out that during our consultation, that, well, they never ever REALLY ended up finishing their degree.

This kind of misrepresentation is one of the oldest tricks in the job search book … if this sounds like you, it would be in your best interest to be as forthright as possible about your educational background. Human resource managers are well aware of this trick !!! Quite honestly, the EASIEST background check to do in the world is to verify whether a person graduated or not from a particular institution. Fudging it or trying to convey a different impression is a fast-track to the trashbin for your résumé.

So this is an 'either' or an 'or' situation.

EITHER you got the degree OR you took program coursework in a field.

If you are currently in progress, you can indicate:
Degree name (spelled out, please): area of ​​study (anticipated completion date: ______)

As for the rest of your education, anything else that is not from a formal, accedited institution or career school falls into the 'professional development' category, and can include everything from industry certifications, workshops, trainings, continuing education units (CEUs), conferences, seminars, conventions and the like.

You'll want to call this specific section "Professional Development," which conveys to an employer that you are always actively taking steps to improve and hone your skills so you can do your job better.

Not working right now? Have some resources? Try keeping up on industry trends by registering for a class in your field through a trade association. It's a great way to keep your 'toe in the pool' and stay current.

Keeping your mind engaged while looking for employment is very important. Sometimes, being laid off is the very opportunity needed to open a new chapter for professional enhancement … there simply wasn't time for it previously. You never know where this can lead to! A recent client of mine spent the money to get certified with another industry credential. One of the requirements of the certification was to take an exam. When she showed up at the exam location, she found out that she was the only unemployed person there-everyone else was there through their company. The amazing thing was that she got three highly-qualified job leads by talking to the people there at the exam location … and she was so thrilled that the exam itself was the highlight of the day!

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Active Recreation And Its Importance

Recreation can be defined as the refreshment of one's mind or body through activity that amuses or stimulates.

Researches and findings have shown that recreational activities have health or mental benefits and help in the development of psychological and social tendencies of individuals. It could be passive or active or a combination of the two. In passive activities, the individual has less of a role to play in the process of recreation but rather engages in it partially without any stress.

Here the individual is a beneficially of an activity that is performed by others. Examples of passive recreation include enjoying a song, watching aerobics, watching a football match in a stadium or reading. This form of recreation rejuvenates and relieves tension. On the other hand, if the individual plays a major role in the activity. Examples of active recreation include playing ping pong, bicycling, running, brisk walking and playing basketball with friends and relatives.


1. Active which involves physical activities makes an individual less prone to obesity.

2. Active activities are excellent for elevating the heart rate.

3. It also helps to boost the immune system. Researches show that positive changes in the immune system occur during moderate exercise.

4. It increases positive moods.

5. Recreation and leisure activities can help alleviate depression.

6. Rest, relaxation and revitalization through recreation are essential in managing stress in today's busy and demanding world.

7. This type of activity is a medium in which participants can gain personal life satisfaction.

Take the work load off this holiday season and get involved in these activities, the health benefits are rewarding.

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The Entrepreneurial Success Plan for Coaches

Many coaches know they have been blessed with a gift to coach but are not confident with the part of being an entrepreneur. Sadly, the number of coaches who don't succeed is probably far greater than the number of coaches who succeed.

If you are a coach that is self-employed it is critical to the life of your business that you are equipped with skills to succeed as a business owner. You can't simply focus on being an amazing coach, you must also be an amazing CEO. That means running your business in a way that it will succeed even during the toughest times. This article is going to share some tips to help you achieve and maintain entrepreneurial success as a coach.

1. Hire a business coach or take business classes:

There are business coaches and business classes that specialize in helping coaches to grow their business. Don't feel like you must "go at it" alone because you don't. And don't wait until your business is in trouble to seek guidance. This is something that should be done frequently so that you can stay "on top of things."

2. Know the specific problem you solve:

It is important that you know the specific problem you solve for your clients. Most of the time problems equal some level of pain, frustration, or dissatisfaction with life. So when you can solve problems for your clients you can help them live a happier and more fulfilled life. And that is priceless. And knowing the specific problem you solve also helps you to market your business better, attract your ideal clients, and stand out in your niche.

3. Don't be afraid to charge for your services:

This is huge because in order to stay in business you must make money. And you absolutely can't charge fees that are so low that you can't keep your business doors open. Now this does not mean you have to charge such a high fee that you are out of the reach of your ideal clients, but neither does it mean that you should charge so low that you are struggling financially in your life and in your business.

Having the right money mindset is essential because it will empower you to break through fear, doubt, and other issues around you charging the fee you truly desire. Not the fee that you feel like people will pay you, but the one that is fair to both you and your clients. And there is a way that can be done so you will still feel authentic and in divine alignment.

4. Stay motivated:

This is a key piece to entrepreneurial success that is often overlooked. Why? Because most of the time when we hear the words "entrepreneurial success" we think of things that are happening externally, like working with a business coach, taking business classes, or learning marketing skills. But motivation is the fire under everything else. Because without motivation no real action is being taken.

Keep pushing toward entrepreneurial success and refuse to give up. You will have some good days and you will have some not so good days but keep moving forward. Keep focusing on the reason you decided to become an entrepreneur and let those reasons continue to fuel your success. Believe in what God has purposed you to do and trust divine wisdom, and guidance. And if you ever feel your motivation getting low fuel up by listening to things or reading things that inspire and motivate you.

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Learning Alternatives: Which One's for You?


"Good morning students", greeted M's Crabapple standing front and center of the tidy classroom. A throng of more than 30 students responded, "Good morning M's Crabapple." She continued, "First we'll take roll call." Then proceeded to call and check off each student as they responded, "present". Next was an explanation of the proposed lessons for the day. There was copying of board work – lots of board work, and the staccato of lecturing and copying interspersed with recitations, was broken once in the morning for a fifteen minute recess and again at noon for lunch. The drilling resumed at the one o'clock bell, and continued until broken by the day's final recess bell at three. "Don't forget to study and do your homework", the school-marm bellowed at the fleeing mass of students rushing the exit like they were abandoning a sinking ship.

Such might have been typical of "a day at school" for millions of students over a period of decades.

Learning Alternatives

Now however, the traditional role of schooling has radically been altered. A number of viable learning alternatives are available. What are some of the benefits and disadvantages of each of these learning alternatives? Let's look at some of them.

Correspondence course

A correspondence course is traditionally, a class conducted through the mail. Lesson materials arrive by mail. The student then returns their completed work by return mail and waits for the next lesson to arrive by mail. The process continues and repeats until all the required lessons have been completed. There is no teacher to student contact other than the written word. Some programs nowadays do allow for telephone, e-mail or voice-mail contact. Only highly motivated, independent learners are able to benefit greatly from this type of learning.

Field Trips

Associated with both a traditional school setting and independent learning, field trips consist of students visiting a location outside of their school or home to learn about a topic or theme. Places visited might include businesses such as manufacturing facilities, a park, a museum, the Zoo or an aquarium, public services facilities like fire stations, TV or radio studios, hospitals or police stations. An effective learning strategy, this method does require a teacher or guide to fully accomplish. Also, setting up visits to some locales may be difficult or impossible for the individual learner.

Independent Study

Independent Study involves design of a project which students then complete by various means on their own. The collective work may require a number of intricately interacted facets to complete. Investigative research, writing, field trips, interviews, extensive reading and lectures may all be involved and required to complete project work. The final production is often a presentation, paper or report extolling the details of the student's work and acquired knowledge.

Vocational School

An educational bastion for learning trade or technical skills, a vocational school teaches practical skills. Students are most often immediately employable by the private and commercial sectors upon completion of a course of studying a vocational school. Fields like Health Care, Nursing, Electronics, Computer Science, Construction and Manufacturing that have a demand for skilled labor or technicians receive a steady supply of their labor force from these types of schools.

Educational Television Course

The vast majority of major metropolitan areas have one or more public broadcasting stations which feature educational programs. These programs are frequently part of an accredited course of study at a local college or university. Students watch (and often record) the TV programs at home, take notes and study the broadcast material as an integral part of their learning. Another effective strategy for the highly independent learner, this method does not promote interpersonal contact between teacher (if any) and learner.

Continuing Education

When adults want to resume their education at some point in their life, programs offered by Post-Secondary institutions which cater to these students' specific needs are called Continuing Education. Some may last for only a day or two. Other programs can run for weeks with an intensity that can vary from an hour or two per week up to everyday class contact. Courses may be of personal interest topics like ethnic cooking, gardening, writing and photography, or employment-related areas such as welding, plumbing, languages, painting and construction. A highly popular option of today, these types of courses and programs promote interaction between students in the class, interactive learning and full teacher to student contact. There is usually lots of feedback between teacher and learners, and the learners themselves.

We likely will never see a return to "traditional" learning as was illustrated above. But with the growing variety of learning alternatives, there certainly is something to suit almost everyone. So get out of your rut. Take a chance – take a course and improve your mind and your life using one of the many learning alternatives available to you. If not, there's always a M's Crabapple waiting.

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Can Python Web Applications Be Tested Using Selenium?

Python is currently more popular than other modern programming languages. The interpreted and object-oriented programming language is also hugely popular among developers across the world as a strong server side scripting language. As Python enables developers to express concepts by writing less and readable code, it becomes easier for programmers to reduce the development time significantly. At the same time, the developers also have option to use popular web frameworks like Django to create high-performing and complex Python web applications rapidly. However, the developers still need to assess the look, feel and performance of the Python web application thoroughly to boost its popularity and profitability.

While testing the internet applications the developers have option to choose from a number of browser automation tools like PAMIE, PyXPCOM, windmill, SST and Selenium. But most developers prefer Selenium to other frameworks to test their Python web applications efficiently. Unlike other web browser automation tools, Selenium allows testing professionals to write test scripts in a number of languages ​​including Python, C #, Java, PHP, Ruby and Python. So the testers have option to test the Python web application by writing test scripts in Python. There are also a number of reasons why developers across the world use Selenium for testing Python web applications.

Why QA Professionals Prefer Using Selenium for Testing Python Web Applications?

Supports Major Operating Systems and Web Browsers

At present, Selenium supports all major operating systems and web browsers. The framework currently supports both Microsoft Windows and Linux. Likewise, it is compatible with most popular web browsers like Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari and Opera. The compatibility makes it easier for QA professionals to test the Python web application tools across multiple platforms and web browsers without writing separate codes, or using additional test automation tools. Selenium further comes with features to generate and execute test scripts automatically across different web browsers and systems simultaneously.

Allows Users to Create Complete Test Automation Suite

The Selenium testing professionals can create a complete test automation suite by combining Selenium WebDriver and Selenium IDE. They can use Selenium WebDriver to quickly create browser-based regression automation suites and tests. Further, they can scale and distribute the test scripts across multiple environments. The Selenium IDE, on the other hand, makes it easier for testers to create bug-reproduction scripts rapidly. Thus, the QA professionals can combine distinct parts of Selenium to create a complete test automation tool, without requiring any licensed or third-party APIs.

Executes Tests Faster

To identify all bugs and performance issues in the web applications, QA professionals have to perform tests repeatedly and frequently. But the testers also have to complete all tests within a limited amount of time. Selenium allows testing professionals to take advantage of cloud-based testing grids to boost the performance of their test runs. In addition to optimizing the test infrastructure, these tools further enable testers to run parallel tests. Thus, it becomes easier for the testers to execute tests quickly and repeatedly. The testers also have option to choose from several open source cloud-based functional testing grids to avoid increased project overheads.

Requires Basic HTML Concepts

Selenium supports a number of modern programming languages. But while testing a Python web application, it requires only basic HTML concepts. HTML is used for describing a web page, whereas individual HTML tags represent document content. Thus, HTML tags decide how the content is appears on the web browsers. Selenium divides the HTML elements or attributes into three distinct categories, ie, single, group and customized. It locates single elements by their id, link or link text, whereas the group elements are identified based on combined values ​​or index property. So it becomes easier for testers to find out the location of the defect or bug. The feature makes it easier for them to identify the exact bugs and performance issues quickly.

Helps Testers to Address Maintainability Issues

In addition to creating and executing test scripts quickly, QA professionals are also required to maintain the test cases effectively. Selenium helps testers to overcome maintainability issues by structuring the automated test code using a pattern called page objects. The page objects focuses on the structure of HTML code of a particular web page instead of checking how the services are implemented. Thus, testers can take advantage of page objects to locate the code easily, navigate between various web pages smoothly, and making changes only once. As most Selenium code will be located inside page objects, the testers can easily increase the code base without adding fresh Selenium code.

Provides Selenium Python API

As noted earlier, Python supports several programming languages ​​including Python. So the testers have option to write test scripts in Python. Also, they can use Selenium Python API to write acceptance and functional tests by accessing Selenium WebDrivers like common, support, chrome, Firefox, ie, remote and phantomjs. The most recent version of the API further supports multiple versions of Python including 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 2.7. It can further be accessed simply by downloading and installing the Selenium Python bindings. Thus, an organization can leverage the skills of existing Python programmers to perform acceptance and functional testing efficiently.

Works with Several Testing Frameworks

While testing the Python web application with Selenium, QA professionals have option to use a number of test framework. At present, the portable web browser automation framework works with Pytest, PyUnit, unittest, and robot framework. As a part of Python 2.1 standard library, PyUnit enables testers to write tests easily, and execute multiple tests in text or GUI mode. Likewise, pytest comes with a number of features that help testers to write better programs. So the QA professional can take advantage of these test frameworks to ensure that the Python web application delivers flawless user experience across many web browsers.

Python is an open source programming language, whereas Selenium is an open source web browser automation tool. Thus, organizations can use the programming language and web testing tool together to bring down the project costs. However, the combination will further enable them test the application across major web browsers within a stipulated amount of time.

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